Fossil Forests of Axel Heiberg Island

In the below post, Mr. Palmstrom claimed that fossil forests found on Axel Heiberg Island the Canadian Arctic are evidence of Earth Crustal or Pole Shift. He argues that the 45 million year old fossil forests found on Axel Heiberg Island could never have existed in the arctic cold that characterizes the modern Arctic Circle. Also, in other posts, he claims that any plant cannot survive in the Arctic Circle where it can be completely dark for months. Thus, he concludes that this fossil forest had to have been shifted by Earth crustal displacement from low latitudes into the Arctic Circle. However, he overlooks the fact that 45 million years ago, the Earth was much warmer than is now. In fact, at the time these forests existed, the Earth was in one of its warmest phases of the last 100 million years. Since then, the cooling of the Earth has forced both trees and animals to move permanently southward.

There are many plants that have adapted to 24-hour darkness of Arctic winters. A classic example is the arctic willow, illustrated by Francis (1991:62). The arctic willow is currently found on Axel Heiberg Island. The absence of forests is likely the result of temperature. Today, trees are restricted to regions where the average July temperature is at least 50ˇF and the temperature is above freezing for more than a third of the year. In addition, the presence of permafrost presents an extreme handicap on trees (Francis 1991).

Reference Cited:

Francis, Jane E., 1991, Arctic Eden. Natural History.
pp. 57-62. (January 1991).

References About the Axel Heiberg Fossil Forests:

Basinger, J. F., 1989, Early Tertiary floristics and
paleoclimate in the very high latitudes. American Journal
of Botany. vol. 76, no. 6, Supplement, p. 158.

Basinger, J. F., 1991, The fossil forests of the Buchanan Lake
Formation (early Tertiary), Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian
Arctic Archipelago; preliminary floristics and paleoclimate.
In: R. L. Christie and N. J. McMillan, eds., pp. 39-65,
Tertiary fossil forests of the Geodetic Hills, Axel Heiberg
Island, Arctic Archipelago. Geological Survey of Canada
Bulletin no. 403 Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Francis, Jane E., 1991, Arctic Eden. Natural History.
pp. 57-62. (January 1991).

Greenwood, David R., and Basinger, James F., 1994, The
paleoecology of high-latitude Eocene swamp forests from
Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. Review of
Palaeobotany and Palynology. vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 83-97.

Greenwood, David R., and Basinger, James F., 1992,
Stratigraphy and floristics of Eocene swamp forests from
Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Canadian
Journal of Earth Sciences. vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1914-1923.

Lepage, B. A., and Basinger, J. F., 1991, Early Tertiary
Larix from the Buchanan Lake Formation, Canadian Arctic
Archipelago, and a consideration of the phytogeography of
the genus. In: R. L. Christie and N. J. McMillan, eds.,
pp. 67-82, Tertiary fossil forests of the Geodetic Hills,
Axel Heiberg Island, Arctic Archipelago. Geological Survey
of Canada Bulletin no. 403 Geological Survey of Canada,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 1991.

McIver, E. E., and Basinger, J. F., 1989, The morphology
and relationships of Thuja polaris sp. nov. (Cupressaceae)
from the early Tertiary, Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada.
Canadian Journal of Botany. vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1903-1915.

Below are some articles that discuss the Axel Heiberg Fossil Forests.


Re: Aliens created man!
Author: PVH 
Date: 1999/10/09
Forum: alt.prophecies.nostradamus
Posted on: 1999/10/09
Message-ID: 
NNTP-Posting-Date: Sat, 09 Oct 1999 20:54:28 CDT

On 1999/09/28 and in <37f08cf3.5570105@news.utfors.se>,
C M. Palmstršm  wrote:
+On Mon, 27 Sep 1999 23:28:31 +0100,
+dweller@ramtops.demon.co.uk (Doug Weller) wrote:
++In article <380adc14.43439387@news.utfors.se+,
++on Mon, 27 Sep 1999 21:15:13 GMT,
++christer@palmstrom.nuNOSPAM said...

(... material omitted ????)

++++There are some articles linked to my web site (url
++++in sig) showing that this is not just impossible, but
++++that the temperature in Antarctica for the past few
++++million years was hardly conducive to civilization!
+++ LMAO, And you have, missed... nothing....  as usual!
+++ Please, Is this guy for real!??
+++
++Oh I'm real. I've got my doubts about you.  Or at least
++in your interest in reality.
+
+Swamp Cypress and Dawn Redwood can only grow in a warm,
+wet climate, and there my friend you have reality!
+
+http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF7/788.html
+http://www.dep.anl.gov/arctic.htm
+http://www.umaine.edu/canam/Nunavut/Nunfacts.htm
+http://www.anl.gov/OPA/news97/news970627.html

As a reading of the URLs shows that the age of these
deposits is an important aspect of the *reality* of
these fossil trees.

1. For example, in "The Farthest North Fossils Article #788"
at http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF7/788.html ,
Larry Gedney states:

  "The trees had once grown 150 feet tall and lived for
  as long as 1,000 years (they were so well preserved
  that the growth rings could be counted). One astonishing
  thing about the stumps is that they are 45 million years
  old!"

2. Also "Argonne in the Arctic" at
http://www.dep.anl.gov/arctic.htm states

  "The expedition will collect fossilized plants from the
  remains of a forest which grew at this site 45 million
  years ago."

3. Finally in "Students can e-mail Argonne scientist on
arctic expedition " at
http://www.anl.gov/OPA/news97/news970627.html , it is stated:

 "The expedition will collect fossilized plants from the
  remains of a forest which grew at the site 45 million
  years ago."

Going to the weg page at http://www.dep.anl.gov/arctic.htm
("Nunavut"), I found a web page that describes modern day
Canada, including its climate and geography some 45 million
years *after* the fossil forest and was buried.  The reality
of the situation is what this web page has to say about
climate is totally irrelevant to the conditions when the
forest grew and was buried.

[NOTE: If Mr. Christer wants me to plant Swamp Cypress
and Dawn Redwood, he is going to provide me with a time
machine that travel back in time 45 million years and
put me exactly on Axel Heiberg Island. :-) ]

The presence of broadleaved deciduous forests and swamps
in Axel Heiberg Island in the High Canadian Arctic is not
that surprising as the climate was warm and wet about
45 million years ago.  The fossil plants and vertebrates
found clearly show that the climate was warm and humid.

About these fossil trees, Greenwood and Basinger (1994) state:

  "A record of high-latitude (79 degrees 55'N) Eocene polar
  vegetation is preserved on Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian
  High Arctic, in megafloras in an alternating sequence of
  swamp-coal, fluvio-lacustrine shale and channel-sand
  lithofacies of the upper coal member of the Buchanan
  Lake Formation. Some exposures of the swamp facies
  contain significant fossil forests represented by
  autochthonous assemblages of mummified in-situ tree
  stumps and forest-floor leaf-litter mats. Exposed
  trunks within a single coal layer represent multiple
  stands of trees killed and buried at the different
  times over 500-2000 yr."

The warm climate fossils include "Metasequoiea" tree
stumps, soft-shelled turtles, and even flying lemurs.

Both Marincovich et al. (1990) and Thiede et al. (1990)
summarize data that show that the Arctic Ocean was
"remarkably warm and equable" during the Cretaceous
and early Tertiary.  The terrestrial climates were likely
mild temperate or warmer lacking any prolonged spells
of freezing weather as indicated by vertebrate faunas,
fossil pollen, and fossil leaves.

During the Tertiary, the climate gradually cooled until an
ice cover formed about 20 million years *after* Antarctica
was first glaciated.  This is shown that by the Pliocene,
only fossils of fairly cool-climate trees, e.g., spruce,
are found in strata outcroping in the region.  In younger
strata, no full-size trees are found in the fossil floras
dominated by tundra plants.  It is clear from the fossil
evidence that a substantial degree of climatic cooling,
which started during Early Eocene occurred between the
burial of the swamp cypress and dawn redwoods and the
Pleistocene (Leg 151 Shipboard Scientific Party 1995,
Marincovich 1990; Thiede et al. 1990, Wolfe 1985, 1986).
Paleovegetation maps of the northern hemisphere
illustrated by Wolfe (1985, 1986) clearly show that the
north pole was situated directly over the Arctic Ocean
during all of this time and refute claims of any Pole
Shift or Earth Crustal Displacement.

During this time, the Antarctic Peninsula was covered
with a "Seasonally humid Nothofagus rain forest (10-15
degrees C)."  Unlike the Arctic Circle, regional
temperatures within the Antarctic Circle were dropping
to subfreezing temperatures around 30 million years ago
(Dingle and Lavelle 1998:fig 3).

A fascinating aspect of the tree fossils is that assuming
that the axial tilt of the Earth hasn't changed, Axel
Heiberg Island would have experienced 24 hours of sunlight
in the summer and 24 hours of darkness in the winter.  There
would have been variable periods of day-night cycles between
the winter and summer.  This would explain the abundance of
broadleaved deciduous conifers, e.g., the bald cypress and
"Metasequoia" and broadleaf angiosperms which lose their
leaves for the winter.  Such trees would have best able to
adapt as there would not be much need for leaves during
the months of total darkness.  In fact, Wolfe (1985, 1986)
shows that broadleaved deciduous trees, which could adapt
to the conditions characterizing the Arctic Circle.  As
temperature became cooler, the polar broadleaved deciduous
forests were replaced by polar mixed conifer forests
within the Arctic Circle (Wolfe 1985, 1986).

References Cited:

Dingle, R. V., and Lavelle, M., 1998, Late Cretaceous -
Cenozoic climatic variations of the northern Antarctic
Peninsula: new geochemical evidence and review.
Palaeogeograpy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. vol. 141,
nos. 3-4, pp. 215-232.

Greenwood, David R., and James F. Basinger, 1994, The
paleoecology of high-latitude Eocene swamp forests from
Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. Review of
Palaeobotany and Palynology. vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 83-97.

Leg 151 Shipboard Scientific Party (1995) Farthest North:
Ocean drilling in the Arctic gateway region. GSA Today.
vol. 5, no 2, pp. 1,31-33.

(This reference can be downloaded from
  http://www.geosociety.org/pubs/gsatoday/gsat9502.htm .)

Marincovich, L., Jr., Brouwers, E. M., Hopkins, D. M.,
and McKenna, M. C., 1990, Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic
paleogeographic and paleoclimatic history of the Arctic
Ocean Basin, based upon shallow-water marine faunas and
terrestrial vertebrates. In A. Grantz, L. Johnson, and J. F.
Sweeny, eds., pp. 403-426, The Arctic Ocean Region. The
Geology of North America, vol. L, Geological Society of
America, Boulder, Colorado.

Thiede, J., Clark, D. L., and Herman, Y., 1990, Late Mesozoic
and Cenozoic paleoceanography of the northern polar oceans.
In A. Grantz, L. Johnson, and J. F. Sweeny, eds., pp. 427-
458, The Arctic Ocean Region. The Geology of North America,
vol. L, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Wolfe, Jackson A., 1985, Distribution of major vegetation
types during the Tertiary. In E. T. Sundquist and W. S.
Broecker, eds., pp. 357-375, The Carbon Cycle and
Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present.
American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph no. 32.

Wolfe, Jackson A., 1986, Tertiary plant megafossils and
paleoclimates of the Northern Hemisphere.  In T. W.
Broadhead, ed., pp. 182-196., Land Plants. Univeristy of
Tennessee Department of Geological Sciences Studies in
Geology no. 15, Knoxville, TN.

Related URLS:

Fingerprints of the Gods Exhibits 4 to 6, Fossil Forests
 http://www.intersurf.com/~heinrich/FOG2.html

Camposaurs and Fossil Forests of Axel Heiberg Island
 http://www.intersurf.com/~heinrich/AxelHeiberg1.html

"Arctic Expedition 96" at:
 http://www.earth.rochester.edu/pmag/personnel/rory/myarctic.htm

and "Ph.D. project" at:
 http://www.geo.ucalgary.ca/~macrae/current_projects.html#phd

[... stuff about the beech forests of Antarctica ...]

... signature omitted ...

------------ Second Post About Axel Heiberg Island ------------
Axel Heiberg Forests was "Re: Aliens created man!"
Author: Heinrich PVH 
Date: 1999/10/13
Forum: alt.prophecies.nostradamus
Message-ID: 
NNTP-Posting-Date: Wed, 13 Oct 1999 23:31:48 CDT

NOTE: This is the second of two posts that I have made
about the fossil forests of Axel Heiberg Island.

On 4 Oct 1999 and in <37ff21d2.20113180@news.utfors.se>
C M. Palmstršm  wrote:

+On 28 Sep 1999 17:09:55 GMT, korpela@islay.ssl.berkeley.edu
+(Eric J.Korpela) wrote:
+
++Pole shifting has never happened before.
+
+This starts to get quite amusing :-)

Once you start reading what I have to say, it will
become even more amusing.  :-)  :-)

+So, for the fifth time (i think) how did Swamp Cypress
+and Dawn Redwood end up in the Canadian Arctic without
+being attacked by scavengers, fungi and bacteria...?

The stumps on Axel Heiberg Island certainly haven't been
sitting on the surface for the last 45 million years and
nobody claims that they have been.  As discussed by both
Greenwood and Basinger (1994) and Francis (1991), the
stumps were buried in water-saturated clayey fine-grained
deltaic sediments.  If these sediments don't dry out, wood
can be preserved for very long periods of time contrary
to what is claimed above.  Only recently, has erosion
removed the protective sediments from the stumps and
exposed them on the surface.  The dry and extremely cold
climate prevented the wood from being destroyed by
bacteria and fungi as and after they are exposed by
erosion (Francis 1991, Greenwood and Basinger 1994).

In fact, there are many places within the Atchafalaya
Basin and flood plains of the modern Mississippi River
where buried forests only a couple hundred to thousands
of years old lie beneath swamp and flood plain.  Borrow
pits and excavations for the construction of levees and
Interstate Highway 10 exposed a number of these buried
forests at different times.

Other published examples of wood being preserved for long
periods of time by being buried in water-logged sediments
are too many to list.  They include:

1. The wreck of the 18th century Spanish ship, El Nuevo
Constante.  Parts of the hull, logwood, blocks of
annatto dye, and cowhides preserved beneath Atchafalaya
Bay muds (Pearson and Hoffman 1995).  Also see:

  http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/nuevo/manuev.htm

2. logs, wooden artifacts, and basketry from archaeological
sites all over the world (Coles 1992).  One of these sites
is the Gesher Benet YA'aqov where waterlogged wood was found
together with 500,000 year old Homo erectus remains.

3. a 400 to 500 year old dugout canoe found in the clayey
sediments filling an abandon meander loop of the Mississippi
River in Washington County, Mississippi (Fuller 1992).

4. the Union gunboat U.S.S. Eastport and steamboat S.S.
Edward F. Dix which are both completely preserved being
buried beneath 40 feet of water-saturated Red River alluvium
(Albertosn 1995, 1996).  (In fact, there is at least another
riverboat buried beneath the Red River flood plain in
Louisiana that has been found to be preserved this way.)

5. Thousands of logs have been found in alluvial deposits
of various European rivers which have been dated by
dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating as being as old
as 10,000 to 11,000 BP. (Becker et al. 1991).

6. 11,700 year old logs that are part of the Two Creek
Forest Bed exposed between two glacial till near Two
Rivers, Wisconsin (Broecker and Farrand 1963).

7. 20,000 year old tree trunks rooted in the Farmdale
Geosol (a fossil forest soil), encased in lake deposits
and buried by 40 ft (12 m) of glacial till (Tiskilwa
formation) overlian by 5 ft (1.5 m) of Peoria Loess.
This is exposed in Charleston Stone Company quarry near
Charleston, Illinois (Hansel et al. 1999).

8. At Mt. Pleasant Bluff on the Mississippi River
about 25 miles (16 km) north of Baton Rouge, LA,
Brown (1938) described a buried forest bed consisting the
stumps of cypress (Taxodium distichum) and rare tupelo
gum (Nyssa sylvatica).  The forest bed occurs 25 ft.
(7.6 m) above the present level of the Mississippi River
buried within Pleistocene-age backswamp deposits of the
Mississippi River (Prairie Formation) capped by about
six ft (1.8 m) of Peoria Loess (Mossa and Autin 1989).

There are innumerable other examples of wood and stumps
being preserved in water-saturated sediments.  Once
buried in waterlogged alluvial, deltaic, and marine
sediments, wood can be preserved as long as the sediment
remains wet and the wood is not compressed by being
buried beneath thousands of feet of additional sediments.

References Cited:

Albertson, Paul E., 1995, Confirmation of the USS Eastpoint
and Edward F. Dix. Geological Society of America Abstracts
with Programs. vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 417.

Albertson, P. E.,1996. The Search for the USS Eastport.
Video #96041. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterway
Experiment Station Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg,
Mississippi.

Becker, Bernd, Kromer Bernd, Bernd, and Timborn, Peter, 1991,
A stable-isotope tree-ring timescale of the Late
Glacial/Holocene boundary Nature vol. 353, pp. 647-649.

Broecker, W. S., and Farrand, W. R., 1963, Radiocarbon age
of the Two Creeks Forest bed, Wisconsinan. Geological
Society of America Bulletin. vol. 74, pp. 795-802.

Brown, C. A., 1938, The Flora of the Pleistocene Deposits
in the Western Florida Parishes, West Baton Rouge Parish,
and East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Pp. 59-96 in
Contributions to the Pleistocene History of the Florida
Parishes. Louisiana Geological Survey Geological Bulletin
no. 12, Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Coles, Bryon, 1992, The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory.
WARP Occasional Paper no. 6, University of Exeter, Exeter,
United Kingdom.

Francis, Jane E., 1991, Arctic Eden. Natural History.
pp. 57-62. (January 1991).

Fuller, R. S., 1992, Archaeological Recovery and Analysis
of an Indian Dugout Canoe (Site 22 WS 776) Discovered in
the Bank of Steele Bayou, Swan Lake, Washington County,
Mississippi. Report submitted by Coastal Environments,
Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana to the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Vicksburg District, Vicksburg, Mississippi
under Contract no. DAWC38-89-D-0038, Delivery Order no.
7. 56 pp.

Greenwood, David R., and Basinger, James F., 1994, The
paleoecology of high-latitude Eocene swamp forests from
Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. Review of
Palaeobotany and Palynology. vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 83-97.

Hansel, A. K., Berg, R. C., and Phillips, A. C,. 1999,
Glacial Sediments, Landforms, Paleosols, and 20,000-Year-
Old Forest Bed in East-Central Illinois.  Illinois State
Geological Survey Gudiebook 26, Illinois State Geological
Survey, Urbana, Illinois.

Mossa, J., and Autin, W. J., 1989, Quaternary Geomorphology
and Stratigraphy of the Florida Parishes, Southeastern
Louisiana. Louisiana Geological Survey Guidebook Series
no. 5, Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
98 pp.

Pearson, C. E. and P. E. Hoffman, 1995, The Last Voyage of
the El Nuevo Constante. Louisiana State University Press,
Baton Rouge, LA.

++ Axel Heiberg Island Forests Continued +++

In the thread "Re: Aliens created man!" Mr. Palmstrom
posted article, no. <37ff9f4a.13835960@news.utfors.se>
to alt.prophecies.nostradamus in which he complained about
Doug Weller stating that the preservation of the Axel
Heiberg Island forests took millions of years.  The first
with his complaint was that Mr. Weller was referring not
to these fossil trees, but rather a hypothesized instance
of true polaring wandering that Kirschvink et al. (1997)
proposed happened during the Early Cambrian.

Concerning the fossil forests of Axel Heiberg Island,
Mr. Palmstršm stated:

+Took many millions of years... sure, and the Swamp Cypress
+and Dawn Redwood in the Canadian Arctic you keep ignoring...
+guess you and your biased friend have no problem with
+scavengers, fungi, bacteria and such...   Did you and your
+friend know that when plants die they are immediately
+attacked by these, which destroy them before they can be
+as in this case mummified "many millions of years later"?

Yes, I and Weller know all that very well.  However, Mr.
Palmstršm seemly doesn't know that the stumps haven't been
sitting on the surface for the last 45 million year and
nobody claims that they did for so long.  As discussed by
Greenwood and Basinger (1994) and Francis (1991), the
stumps were buried in water-saturated clayey fine-grained
deltaic sediments.  If these sediments never dry out, wood
can be preserved for very long periods of times contrary
to what is incorrectly claimed above.  Only recently,
have the stumps been exposed by erosion.  The extremely
cold and dry climate inhibits the wood from being destroyed
by bacteria and fungi while being and after they are
exposed by erosion.  Documented examples of wood and
basketry being preserved for hundreds and thousands of
years in water-saturated sediments, which refute the
objections of Mr. Palmstršm, are noted above.

+Have you and your friend Heinrich ever been in a forest!?

Yes.  In fact, I have gone out canoeing and with birdwatchers
many times into the Atchfalaya Basin and hardwood bottomlands
of the Mississippi River.  I have become well acquainted
with the cypress and hardwood swamps within these areas.

In fact, there are many places within the Atchafalaya
Basin and flood plains of the modern Mississippi River
where buried forests only a couple hundred years to
thousands of years old lie beneath swamp and flood plain.
A number of excavations done for Interstate Highway 10
across the Atchafalya Basin revealed several buried swamp
forests, similar to those being exposed by erosion on Axel
Heiberg Island.  They were found buried beneath 3 to 4
meters of mud.  In one case, historic maps show that
the buried forest was only a hundred or so years old.

In addition, a fellow geologist showed me a borrow pit
that was dug to obtain clayey fill for a nearby Mississippi
levee.  It exposed buried forest similar to those found on
Axel Heiberg Island.  In the borrow pit near Donaldsonville,
LA, three levels of cypress stumps were found stacked on top
of each other.  The cypress stumps in each level are in a
marvelous state of preservation despite being thousands
of years old.  Each level of stumps represents a cypress
forest that grew in the backswamp of the Mississippi River
during an extended period of very low or nonexistent
sedimentation.  The trees were killed and their stumps
buried and preserved when the development of a crevasse
splay or change in the river course flooded the backswamp
with sediment over a very short period of time.  This is
the type of situation that could have created the buried
stumps of the fossil forests of Axel Heiberg Island.

At Mt. Pleasant Bluff on the Mississippi River about 25
miles (16 km) north of Baton Rouge, LA, Brown (1938)
described a very similar buried forest bed consisting of
the stumps of cypress (Taxodium distichum) and rare tupelo
gum (Nyssa sylvatica).  The forest bed occurs 25 ft.
(7.6 m) above the present level of the Mississippi River
buried within Pleistocene-age backswamp deposits of the
Mississippi River (Prairie Formation) capped by about
six ft (1.8 m) of Peoria Loess (Mossa and Autin 1989).

References Cited:

Brown, C. A., 1938, The Flora of the Pleistocene Deposits
in the Western Florida Parishes, West Baton Rouge Parish,
and East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Pp. 59-96 in
Contributions to the Pleistocene History of the Florida
Parishes. Louisiana Geological Survey Geological Bulletin
no. 12, Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Coles, Bryon, 1992, The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory.
WARP Occasional Paper no. 6, University of Exeter, Exeter,
United Kingdom.

Francis, Jane E., 1991, Arctic Eden. Natural History.
pp. 57-62. (January 1991).

Greenwood, David R., and Basinger, James F., 1994, The
paleoecology of high-latitude Eocene swamp forests from
Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. Review of
Palaeobotany and Palynology. vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 83-97.

Kirschvink, Joseph L., Ripperdan, Robert L., and Evans,
David A., 1997, Evidence for a Large-Scale Reorganization of
Early Cambrian Continental Masses by Inertial Interchange
True Polar Wander. Science, vol.277, no. 5325 pp.541-545.

Mossa, J., and Autin, W. J., 1989, Quaternary Geomorphology
and Stratigraphy of the Florida Parishes, Southeastern
Louisiana. Louisiana Geological Survey Guidebook Series
no. 5, Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
98 pp.

+/Christer
+
+http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF7/788.html
+http://www.dep.anl.gov/arctic.htm
+http://www.umaine.edu/canam/Nunavut/Nunfacts.htm
+http://www.anl.gov/OPA/news97/news970627.html

As a reading of the URLs shows that the age of these
depositsmis an important aspect of the *reality* of
these fossil trees.

1. For example, in "The Farthest North Fossils Article #788"
at http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF7/788.html ,
Larry Gedney states:

  "The trees had once grown 150 feet tall and lived for
  as long as 1,000 years (they were so well preserved
  that the growth rings could be counted). One astonishing
  thing about the stumps is that they are 45 million years
  old!"

2. Also "Argonne in the Arctic" at
http://www.dep.anl.gov/arctic.htm states

  "The expedition will collect fossilized plants from the
  remains of a forest which grew at this site 45 million
  years ago."

3. Finally in "Students can e-mail Argonne scientist on
arctic expedition " at
http://www.anl.gov/OPA/news97/news970627.html , it is stated:

 "The expedition will collect fossilized plants from the
  remains of a forest which grew at the site 45 million
  years ago."

Going to the weg page at http://www.dep.anl.gov/arctic.htm
("Nunavut"), I found a web page that describes modern day
Canada, including its climate and geography some 45 million
years *after* the fossil forest and was buried.  The reality
of the situation is what this web page has to say about
climate is totally irrelevant to the conditions when the
forest grew and was buried.

[ Key words: pole shift, Earth Crustal Displacment,
crustal shift, Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic ]

Sincerely,

Paul V. Heinrich           All comments are the
heinrich@intersurf.com     personal opinion of the writer and
Baton Rouge, LA            do not constitute policy and/or
                           opinion of government or corporate
                           entities.  This includes my employer.

Early Observation About Geologists :-)

And some rin up hill and down
dale, knapping the chucky
stanes to pieces with hammers,
like sae many road makers run daft.
They say it is to see how the
world was made.

--Sir Walter Scott
   St.Roman1s Well 1824

Key words: pole shift, Earth Crustal Displacment, Palmstršm
crustal shift, Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic.


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Dec 14, 2001

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